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Research


Beginning in Fall 2012, Partners in Prevention began publishing monthly research briefs. Each month, PIP members and campus administrators will receive a one-page research brief to keep key players updated on the most recent trends in the health and safety behaviors of Missouri college students.

Volume 1

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Volume 1, Number 18: Gambling Behaviors of Missouri College Students
In addition to providing information about student's health behaviors, the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey also provides information regarding students gambling behaviors. While most students would not be considered frequent gamblers, those who do are primed for additional campus services. This brief examines distinct differences between non-gamblers, occasional gamblers, and frequent gamblers. Read more here!

Volume 1, Number 17: A Picture of Frequent Drinkers and Drivers
The MCHBS collects a significant amount of data on the drinking behavior of Missouri college students. This brief looks at those students who self-report frequently drinking and driving, and shows the different in consequences related to their drinking behavior when compared to the average Missouri college student.Read more here!

Volume 1, Number 16: Missouri College Students & Illegal Drug Use
The Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS) covers a variety of topics, including frequency of illegal substance use. This brief provides college student prevalence rates of bath salts, K2, cocaine, methamphetamines, inhalants and club drugs. The brief also examines negative consequences associated with illegal drug use. Read more here!

Volume 1, Number 15: Mental Health Among Self-identified LGBQQ College Students
Missouri college students who identify as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Queer and Questioning (LGBQQ) face unique stressors that affect their experiences differently than heterosexual students. Thanks in part to a Garrett Lee Smith Suicide Prevention Grant, Partners in Prevention is able implement suicide prevention strategies for this population of students, in order to better serve their mental health needs. This brief provides an overview of the mental health stressors experienced by this population on Missouri college campuses. Read more here!

Volume 1, Number 14: Marijuana & Missouri College Students
The Partners in Prevention, Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS) inquires about various student health behaviors, including marijuana use. This brief provides information on the frequency and location of Missouri college student marijuana use from 2010 to 2012. Read more here!

Volume 1, Number 13: Campus Membership in Partners in Prevention
Guidance and assistance from Partners in Prevention has helped institutions develop the capacity on their campuses to address risky health behaviors through the development of strategic plans and sustained campus community coalitions. PIP is comprehensive, influential, and effective, as documented by long-term evidence of success on both the statewide and local levels. Information in this brief provides an overview of benefits campuses have received as members of Partners in Prevention, as described by campus partners. Read more here!

Volume 1, Number 12: Underage Students Accessing Alcohol: Trend Data
In 2005, campus communities across the state began implementing laws and policies in their communities which educate servers and sellers of alcohol about the consequences of serving to underage patrons or patrons who provide alcohol to minors. Since 2007, Partners in Prevention campuses have implemented evidenced-based strategies in their communities which hold students accountable for off-campus behavior and educate students about making safer choices when socializing off campus. With these changes, this brief looks at the trend data available to see the impact these policies have had on the campuses of Missouri’s public universities. Read more here!

Volume 1, Number 11: Academic Effects of Student Drinking
Students’ consumption of alcohol can produce effects in both their personal and academic lives on campus. Using data from the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey, Grade Point Averages and other academic consequences of alcohol are examined. Read more here!

Volume 1, Number 10: Missouri Student Veterans and Sense of Belonging on Campus
Thanks in part to a Garrett Lee Smith Suicide Prevention Grant from the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Partners in Prevention implemented a new student-veteran specific survey. This brief uses information from this new assessment to gain insights on student-veteran engagement and belonging on six campuses across the state. Read more here!

Volume 1, Number 9: Missouri College Students and Suicide
Suicide is a leading cause of death among college-age youth (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2011). Due to the alarming number of college-age students nationwide who die by suicide each year (1100), Partners in Prevention has incorporated questions related to suicide on the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS). Read more here!

Volume 1, Number 8: Texting and Driving Among Missouri College Students
Research on the topic indicates a growing problem with texting-related behaviors and traffic crashes, particularly among young drivers. If the recent rate of growth continues, beginning the conversation about texting while driving on Missouri campuses and implementing education on safe driving behaviors is a first step in changing the mindset of our young drivers. Read more here!

Volume 1, Number 7: Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs Among Missouri College Students
According to the Missouri Department of Mental Health, drug-related deaths have risen in the state due to increased use of heroin and prescription pain medication among young adults. Missouri's data from the National Household Survey identifies the college-age group as the most frequent users of prescription drugs. This brief reviews MCHBS results for non-medical prescription drug use trends, reasons for use and perceived consequences. Read more here!

Volume 1, Number 6: Tobacco Products & Missouri College Students
As many campuses consider the move towards a smoke free or tobacco free environments, it is important to examine the prevalence of tobacco usage of our college students. The Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS) asks students about their use of a variety of tobacco products, including hookah, e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes. The results of this data brief provide insight into both tobacco usage and poly usage of tobacco products through data gathered from the MCHBS. Read more here!

Volume 1, Number 5: Missouri College Student Mental Health 2012
More than half of Missouri college students have experienced a mental health concern in the past year, with anxiety, sleep issues, and depression being the most common concerns. The results of this data brief will provide insight into the mental health concerns, including risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior, among students and 21 colleges and universities in Missouri. Read more here!

Volume 1, Number 4: Involvement, Academics and Alcohol Among Missouri College Students
Involvement is often touted as a central component in students' retention, academics, and ability to create a sense of belonging on campus. Colleges encourage students to get involved in campus organizations with the expectation students will learn life lessons that are not always available within the classroom, and to further develop skills that will serve them in their life after graduation. The data in the brief examines differences in academics and alcohol usage of involved and non-involved Missouri college students. Read more here!

Volume 1, Number 3: Trend Data Among Students Attending Public Universities in Missouri, 2007-2012
The results in the brief show changes in behavior due to alcohol use among students enrolled in 13 publicly funded universities in Missouri from 2007 to 2012. All results are taken from the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS). Read more here!

Volume 1, Number 2, Special Edition: Missouri Partners in Prevention, Missouri College Health Behavior Survey
To identify progress of our goals, and to obtain data for program implementation, PIP created the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS). The survey, modeled after the CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey, is an annual, online survey implemented each spring semester since 2007. Read more here!

Volume 1, Number 1: Introduction to Missouri's Higher Education Substance Abuse Consortium
Partners in Prevention is Missouri's higher education substance abuse consortium dedicated to creating healthy and safe college campuses. The unique composition brings together different perspectives on health promotion and prevention efforts. Read more here!

Volume 2

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Volume 2, Number 19: Key Findings for International Students on the MCHBS
International students face distinct challenges as non-permanent residents on the college and university campuses across the State of Missouri. While they are less than 5% of the student population, their needs and challenges are so diverse and unique that they undoubtedly require specific attention and resources. This brief seeks to identify more precisely the health behaviors of these students in order for campuses to prepare to provide health promotion services to these students.Read more here!

Volume 2, Number 18: Sexual Violence on College Campuses
According to data taken from the 2014 Missouri College Student Health Behavior Survey, 3.5% of Missouri college students disclosed experiencing non-consensual sexual contact against their will in the last year. National estimates of sexual assaults on college campuses range from 20-25% of students reporting sexual assault. The discrepancy between the MCHBS report and the national estimate shows that many victims of sexual assault are not reporting their victimization. This brief gives recommendations on how to increase reports of sexual assault, thus decreasing the hostile environment that many sexual assault survivors face.Read more here!

Volume 2, Number 17: Differences in Help Seeking Behaviors by Institutional Classification
According to data from the 2013 Missouri College Student Health Behavior Survey, students at Missouri colleges and universities have similar rates of stress, suicidal thoughts and asking for help. However, who students turn to for help differs by institution. This information suggests that colleges and institutions should examine where students go for help and then channel energy into those resources first. Read more here!

Volume 2, Number 16: Prescription Drug Misuse: Reasons and Outcomes
The Missouri College Health Behavior Survey examines the reasons college students give for misusing prescription drugs and the outcomes students experience as a result of misuse. While students give a variety of reasons for misusing prescription drugs, unpredictable results remain a constant among all possible motives. Misusing prescription drugs is not creating the outcomes initially sought and is even causing conflicting effects for Missouri’s college students. Read more here!

Volume 2, Number 15: Health Behaviors of Missouri College Students from Low-income Counties
PIP focuses on reducing high-risk behaviors, and tracks such progress through the implementation of the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS). The MCHBS is implemented annually and collects student demographic information and reported health behaviors, including alcohol use. Exploration of student responses from the 2013 survey identified striking differences in alcohol use and drug use when comparing students from Missouri’s 10 lowest income counties to students from Missouri’s 10 highest income counties who attend colleges and universities in Missouri. Read more here!

Volume 2, Number 14: Student Sense of Belonging and Drinking
Sense of Belonging is emerging as a powerful construct in student affairs. “Belonging - with peers, in the classroom, or on campus is a crucial part of the college experience. In recognition of the potential interest in this construct, a “Sense of Belonging” scale was added to the 2013 MCHBS survey. When Sense of Belonging scores were compared to student drinking a paradox emerged. These analyses suggest that campuses should review their data in these areas when planning prevention programs. Read more here!

Volume 2, Number 13: Gender Differences in Drinking on Missouri Campuses
Distinct patterns emerge when comparing data on gender and alcohol. When looking at gender differences in drinking, males are prone to drink more yet females are more likely to obtain a higher blood alcohol content (BAC) even when consuming less alcohol. The differences between protective behavior use among males and females is also vastly different. For the purposes of this brief, we only compared data from those identifying as male to those identifying as female. Read more here!

Volume 2, Number 12: An Analysis of Student Drinking Behavior in Comparison to Student Living Arrangements
This brief analyzes the 2013 Missouri College Health Behavior Survey to determine whether there are differences in high-risk drinking based on the location of students’ living arrangements, such as off-campus, on-campus residence life settings, or Greek housing. In addition to the noticeable differences which were found, Partners in Prevention also determined that where students live is strongly associated with their choice of drinking location. Read more here!

Volume 2, Number 11: Alcohol Related Behaviors Among Missouri College Student Athletes
The athletes on Missouri college campuses face unique circumstances when compared to the general student body. A look at the alcohol behaviors of Missouri college athletes shows a difference in both risky drinking behaviors and the use of protective behavior strategies. Read more here!

Volume 2, Number 10: An Update on Texting and Driving Among Missouri College Students
Texting while driving encompasses the three main types of distraction – visual, manual and cognitive. It also reduces the driver’s focus from the road more frequently and for longer periods of time than other distractions, which the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration says makes it more dangerous than many other forms of driver inattention. For the first time in 4 years, texting while driving rates among Missouri college students declined in 2013. The MCHBS shows an 8% drop in self-reported texting while driving rates in 2013, with 36% of students engaging in the behavior at least sometimes. Read more here!

Volume 2, Number 9: Alcohol Consequences by Carnegie Classification
Partners in Prevention member campuses vary in their size, mission and student population. As such, this brief uses the established Carnegie Classification system for comparison of similar institutions in order to examine the differences of alcohol related behavior and consequences experienced by students at Missouri’s colleges and universities. Read more here!

Volume 2, Number 8: Marijuana Use Among Missouri College Students
Marijuana Use Among Missouri College Students explores specific drug use patterns among college students in the State of Missouri. The perceptions of marijuana use and actual rates of marijuana use, as well as prevention and programming efforts aimed at marijuana are examined. Read more here!

Volume 2, Number 7: Alcohol Consumption and Perception by Carnegie Classification
The Carnegie Classification system is used in research and analysis of institutions of higher education. For this brief, Partners in Prevention (PIP) has used the classification system to divide member campuses into recognizable groups for comparison, using the Base Classification from the Carnegie Foundation. The similarities and differences in the alcohol consumption and perceptions of students at Baccalaureate colleges, Masters institutions, and Doctoral institutions are examined in this brief. Read more here!

Volume 2, Number 6: Best Practices in Campus Suicide Prevention
Best Practices in Campus Suicide Prevention focuses on the Ask Listen Refer (ALR) program. The ALR program is an online suicide prevention training program designed for students, faculty, staff and parents at colleges in Missouri. The program is individualized by school with campus and community resources. Follow-up information provided by users of the training program have stated that it is a great resource for how to help a friend or student who may be considering suicide. This is important since research shows that students will approach their peers first when a personal concern arises. Read more here!

Volume 2, Number 5: Prescription Drug Use Among Missouri College Students
Partners in Prevention’s Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS) inquires about various student health behaviors, including prescription drug misuse. This brief provides information on the prescription drugs most commonly misused and the acceptability of misuse among Missouri college students. In addition, the brief acknowledges potential health consequences of prescription drug misuse. Read more here!

Volume 2, Number 4: The Economics of Prevention
The Economics of Prevention” brief discusses how alcohol use on college and university campuses has both long and short term financial impacts. By identifying consequences and associated costs and revenue losses that accompany drinking at colleges and universities, the brief helps to assess the overall value of prevention programming in relation to relative costs incurred by institutions. Read more here!

Volume 2, Number 3: Safety Belt Usage High Among Missouri College Students
Traffic crashes are the number one cause of death for college-aged individuals, and wearing a safety belt is one of the best ways to decrease the likelihood of dying in a crash. In Missouri, there is a high usage of safety belts among college students across the state. According to the 2011 Missouri College Health Behavior Survey, the number of Missouri college students who use a safety belt at least most of the time is higher than the national average. Read more here!

Volume 2, Number 2: The Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS)
The Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS) is designed to understand the role of alcohol, drugs (illegal and prescription), mental health issues, and gambling on student health and wellness. The survey also provides information regarding attitudes, perceptions of other student’s behaviors, campus and community laws, and policies. This brief examines the behaviors assessed by the MCHBS and includes information about the generalizability of the data. Read more here!

Volume 2, Number 1: A Look Ahead
Partners in Prevention is pleased to provide Missouri campuses with the second volume of research briefs. Briefs will be published twice monthly and the briefs in Volume two include additional examination of the health behavior of subpopulations of students as well as additional key metrics of the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey, such as student sense of belonging and engagement in campus. PIP will continue to examine key health behavior issues such as alcohol, drug, and tobacco use, driving behaviors, and mental health along with new topics such as interpersonal violence and sexual health. Read more here!

Volume 3

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Volume 3, Number 13: Prevalence of Mental Health Issues with Missouri College Students
Missouri college students self-report experiencing various mental health issues in the past year. The most common mental health issue reported was Anxiety (44%). The next most common concerns were Chronic Sleep Issues (19%) and Major Depression (19%). In addition, the data indicates that subpopulations of students experience these mental health issues differently. Data from the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey indicates that women, individuals who identify as transgender, and individuals who identify as LGBQQ may be at greater risk of experiencing these mental health issues. Read more here!

Volume 3, Number 12: Sexual Violence
Partners in Prevention (PIP) is Missouri’s higher education substance abuse consortium focused on promoting healthy behaviors on college campuses. In order to gain an understanding of the current health experiences of college students, PIP implements the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS) each spring. The information gained from the MCHBS allows PIP to learn more about the experiences of Missouri college students. Recent updates and clarification of Title IX, Clery, and the Campus SAVE Acts require that campuses properly address gender violence on our campuses. In an effort to assist campuses, PIP surveys the prevalence of non-consensual sexual contact reported by our students. Read more here!

Volume 3, Number 11: Underage Drinking
Partners in Prevention (PIP) has been Missouri’s higher education substance abuse consortium since 2000. The coalition, made up of 21 universities in Missouri, works to promote healthy behaviors on college campuses. To assist our campus in strategic planning, Partners in Prevention assesses the behaviors of potentially at-risk populations. In this brief, we review underage drinking. The data reviewed in this brief provides an encouraging snapshot of underage drinking issues with Missouri college students. Since2007, fewer underage students report drinking in bars and at private parties. Additionally, fewer underage students report obtaining alcohol by the use of fake IDs, from family members, and stores which do not check for IDs. Conversely, there has been little change in the percentage of students reporting drinking at Greek houses, within the residence halls, and obtaining alcohol from friends over 21. Read more here!

Volume 3, Number 10: Campus Administrator Support for Campus Prevention Efforts
The biggest obstacles to college students’ success and retention is the misuse and abuse of alcohol, the abuse of drugs, and gender violence. College and university presidents and chancellors must address the problems caused by the inappropriate, unhealthy, and illegal use of alcohol, including gender violence. College officials must work to change the campus and community environment through an integrated combination of programs, policies, and educational campaigns. In fall 2014, campus presidents and chancellors at PIP campuses across Missouri signed Letters of Commitment to show their support to address critical campus health and safety issues on their campus and in their communities and share in the responsibility of prevention. This brief highlights the critical issues that must be addressed by all members of the campus community. Read more here!

Volume 3, Number 9: Minority Student Health Behaviors
Non-white students comprise more than 16% of the Missouri undergraduate population at PIP member campuses. Of the roughly 9,000 students that completed the MCHBS in 2014, (1440) students reported a race/ethnic identity other than “white”. Non-white students comprise a large proportion of the student body at Missouri college and university campuses and report unique health and behavior trends. Compared to the general sample, non-majority students report: lower drinking rates (almost 1 in 3 don’t drink, compared with less than 1 in 4 for the general population), lower binge drinking rates, fewer negative consequences of alcohol use (fewer reports of hangovers, vomiting after overconsumption, and blackouts or memory loss), lower rates of both marijuana and tobacco use than the general population, and greater success when trying to quit these substances. Read more here!

Volume 3, Number 8: Consistency of Alcohol Policy Enforcement
The Missouri College Health Behavior Survey assesses views of our efforts by asking students about their knowledge of prevention programs, perceptions of our concerns and the consistency of enforcement. The data gathered indicates a general trend that campuses with higher perception of consistency of enforcement have lower binge drinking rates. These findings support the environmental management approach in which a strong predictor of student drinking behavior is predicated on access and acceptance of alcohol use. Theoretically, more drinking will occur in environments where students have a negative (or low) perception of conduct consequences associated with their drinking. Read more here!

Volume 3, Number 7: Prescription Drug Misuse
According to data taken from the 2014 Missouri College Student Health Behavior Survey, access to prescription drugs and approval of prescription drug misuse by peer support systems increases the misuse by college students. Educational efforts are important in decreasing the acceptability of misuse by college students. Further, teaching students to limit others’ access to prescription drugs is important. Read more here!

Volume 3, Number 6: Student Misperceptions of High Risk Behavior
According to social norms theory, college student behavior is often influenced by their perceptions of what they think is “normal” or “typical”. However, research indicates that students often misperceive typical health behaviors of other students. The social norms theory predicts that if students hold these misperceptions they will be more likely to partake in high-risk behavior. Conversely, if through prevention efforts we are abl to correct these misperceptions, we will be able to reduce high risk behaviors.Read more here!

Volume 3, Number 5: Veteran Student Health Behaviors on Missouri University Campuses
A growing population of veteran students at Missouri universities and college campuses report unique and specific health needs and behaviors different than their non-veteran counterparts. A better understanding of the problems and needs of this population will help to develop more targeted and effective solutions to assess their health behaviors and concerns.Read more here!

Volume 3, Number 4: Binge Drinking and Student Retention: Binge Drinkers Consideration of Transferring
In 2014, 27% of Missouri college students reported having 5 or more drinks in a two hour period, and 28% reported having 5 or more drinks in one sitting. Binge drinking is linked to many health problems such as a higher rate of unintentional injuries, alcohol poisoning, neurological damage, and the spread of sexually transmitted infections. Additionally, recent data suggests that binge drinking could have a negative impact on academic retention.Read more here!

Volume 3, Number 3: Marijuana Use and Other High Risk Behaviors
*Corrected Version
According to the 2014 MCHBS, 23% of Missouri college students report using marijuana in the past year. MCHBS data suggest that marijuana users report engaging in other high-risk health behaviors significantly more often than their peers who do not use marijuana. These high risk behaviors include binge drinking, tobacco use, and sexual behavior. Additionally, marijuana users may be more likely to have suicidal thoughts and be involved in abusive relationships than non-marijuana users. Read more here!

*Please note that there was a data error shared in the original Volume 3, Number 3 regarding the number of students who used marijuana in the past year. This is the corrected research brief.


Volume 3, Number 2: Key Findings from the 2014 Missouri College Health Behavior Survey
To identify progress of our goals, and to obtain data for program implementation, PIP created the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS). The survey, modeled after the CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey, is an annual, online survey implemented each spring semester since 2007. The survey assesses the role of alcohol, drugs (illegal and prescription), mental health issues, and gambling on student health and wellness. The survey also provides information regarding attitudes, perceptions of other student’s behaviors, campus and community laws, and policies.Read more here!

Volume 3, Number 1: A Look Ahead: Volume 3 of the Partners in Prevention brief series
Partners in Prevention is pleased to provide Missouri campuses with the third volume of research briefs. Briefs will be published monthly and include additional examination of the health behavior of subpopulations of students as well as additional key metrics of the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey, such as student sense of belonging and student engagement. PIP will continue to examine key health behavior issues such as alcohol, drug, and tobacco use, driving behaviors, and mental health along with new topics such as interpersonal violence and sexual health. Read more here!

Volume 4

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Volume 4, Number 12: Drinking and Driving

Drinking and Driving

Partners in Prevention (PIP) is a statewide coalition of 21 public and private colleges and universities in Missouri with the mission of building safe and healthy campuses. PIP tracks efforts to reduce high-risk behaviors with trend data gathered through the annual implementation of the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS). Data from the 2015 MCHBS can be used to better understand drinking and driving among Missouri college students.

Discussion

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention* drinking and driving, even below the legal limit, increases the risk of an accident. For people who are at least 21 years old, the legal limit to drive is 0.08; however, having a BAC of 0.05 doubles your risk of having a crash and a BAC of 0.08 equates to 7 times the risk of an accident as compared to not drinking at all. Research shows that impairment is evident at a 0.02 BAC level. The consequences of drinking and driving can include jail time, fines of up to $500, suspension of driving privileges, or revocation of a license.

table4121

Prevalence

According to the 2015 Missouri College Health Behavior Survey approximately 21% of students report driving a motor vehicle after consuming any alcohol in the past year. Most students reported driving after drinking only one (8%) or two (5%) times in the past year. However, 4% reported drinking and driving 3 to 5 times and 4% reported drinking and driving more than five times in the past year. Less than 1% of students reported being arrested for a drinking and driving violation.

table4122 Some student groups report higher levels of drinking and driving. Groups with identified higher risk included male students (27%), gay male students (31%), female lesbian students (33%), students who report having ADD or ADHD (26%), and male Greek students (29%). Interestingly, female Greek students (21% ) were below the overall student average. The most telling group, however, was upperclassmen with the prevalence of drinking and driving clearly increasing from freshman to senior year, in as depicted the chart below.

Programs

Of the students who reported drinking in the past year, 67% reported that they usually (18%) or always (49%) used designated drivers. Additionally, 82% of Missouri college students defined the designated driver as someone who has not consumed any alcohol. In comparison, 17% define the designated driver as someone who had a couple of alcoholic beverages but was sober enough to drive, and less than 1% define the designated driver as the least drunk person in the group.

Cheers and Drive Safe Drive Smart

table4123 CHEERS was designed to increase the number of designated drivers throughout the state of Missouri. Participating bars, restaurants, and nightclubs provide free non-alcoholic beverages to the acknowledged designated driver in a group of two or more. It’s a way of thanking these individuals for caring about the safety of their friends and community. Establishment owners all across the state have been invited to join CHEERS and to play an active role in ensuring the health and safety of their patrons in exchange for free promotional and supply items and limited advertising. Please support bars, restaurants, and nightclubs that participate in CHEERS, and, if your favorite place is not a member, encourage them to adopt the program.

PIP member campuses and the Missouri Department of Transportation are driven to help Missouri’s college students Drive Safe Drive Smart (DSDS). DSDS is a safe driving campaign reaching students via social media, tabling events, and posted educational materials and encouraging them to not only make smart decisions behind the wheel, but also to act as an active bystander and keep their friends driving safely. Currently, DSDS has billboard campaigns throughout the state, encouraging drivers to designate a texter and a sober driver.

*Impaired Driving: Get the Facts. (2016). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/motorvehiclesafety/impaired_driving/impaired-drv_factsheet.html
Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Dina van der Zalm, Dong Ding, and Dan Reilly, Partners in Prevention Research & Evaluation Staff
Funded by the Missouri Department of Mental Health, Division of Behavioral Health. Original funding for ALR was provided by the Missouri Foundation for Health.

Volume 4, Number 11: Power-based Personal Violence on College Campuses

Power-based Personal Violence on College Campuses

Partners in Prevention (PIP) is a consortium of 21 college and university campuses across Missouri devoted to improving the health and safety of Missouri college students. This is the third in a series of briefs on the most critical public health issues in Missouri higher education. We define critical issues as the behaviors on campus which cause threats to the safety of our students on a daily or weekly basis. Power-based personal violence (PBPV), defined as any violence motivated by the desire to assert power, to control, and/or to intimidate in order to harm another person, is a problem on campuses nationwide. PBPV includes relationship/partner violence, rape/sexual assault, stalking and other harassment, as well as the use of predatory drugs. While not all aspects of PBPV are captured in our statewide data, the annual Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS) gathers data about non-consensual sexual contact and has expanded questions on stalking behaviors and tactics on the 2016 survey.

Discussion

table11-1 The more inclusive term PBPV is used to recognize that violence happens to persons of all genders and sexual orientations; however, MCHBS and national data demonstrate that marginalized groups, including women, people of color, and people who identify as part of the LGBTQ community, are more likely to be victims of PBPV than majority groups, like men or persons who identify as heterosexual. A report by the U.S. Department of Justice found that 1 in 5 women and 1 in 16 men will experience non-consensual sexual contact during their college careers*. In 2015, 17% of Missouri college students reported having experienced “non-consensual sexual contact” at some point in their lives, and approximately 4% of students reported experiencing non-consensual sexual contact within the last year. Given that the majority of students do not report PBPV, more Missouri students likely experienced assaults than MCHBS data indicates; however, even using our more conservative frequency of 4% yields alarming results.With a combined enrollment of over 204,000 students at the 21 campuses, Missouri college students were assaulted at a rate of about one student every hour of every day in 2015.

Summary

According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, survivors are less likely to report PBPV if they know their perpetrators, and perpetrators are statistically more likely to be acquaintances than strangers. As reporting systems and requirements, such as the Clery Act and Title IX, continue to improve, we are better informed about stranger violence, as reflected by the majority of Clery reports describing unknown perpetrators and asking for assistance in identifying them. However, other PBPV still happens. The best way to learn more about acquaintance violence happening to college students is to provide confidential resources that students can easily access without launching investigations or mandatory reporting, in addition to providing Title IX resources, either on campus or in the local community. table11-2Additionally, many schools are implementing evidence-based bystander violence prevention programs, such as Green Dot or STEP UP, to reduce instances of PBPV on their campuses. Making it clear that PBPV will not be tolerated on campus also creates a more supportive environment for survivors, which may positively impact reporting rates.

Educating against common misperceptions is important; however, we must be careful not to invalidate the experiences of survivors of stranger violence. For example, while data tells us that about 80% of rapes and sexual assaults are perpetrated by acquaintances, messaging such as “the rapist isn’t a masked stranger” or “the perpetrator’s not hiding in the bushes”** could be interpreted as making light of or ignoring that stranger violence does still happen. In order to educate about, respond to and prevent non-consensual sexual contact, campuses need to train staff to respond in a trauma-informed way.

*US Department of Justice. (October, 2007). The Campus Sexual Assault Study. Retrieved from www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/221153.pdf
** Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network.(n.d.). Statistics: The offenders. Retrieved from www.rainn.org
Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Dina van der Zalm, Partners in Prevention Research & Evaluation Staff, in consultation with Kim Scates, RSVP Center staff at the University of Missouri
Funded by the Missouri Department of Mental Health, Division of Behavioral Health. Original funding for ALR was provided by the Missouri Foundation for Health.

Volume 4, Number 10: Suicidal Ideation and Ask Listen Refer

Suicidal Ideation and Ask Listen Refer

As Missouri’s consortium in promoting healthy behaviors among college students, Partners in Prevention (PIP) is dedicated to creating safe and healthy campus environments, including addressing student self-harm. PIP implements the annual Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS), which contains questions regarding mental health and suicidal ideation. Although suicide is an issue on all college campuses, training and prevention programs are largely underrepresented. Ask Listen Refer (ALR), a suicide prevention training created in 2009 for campuses across Missouri, offers information that teaches faculty, staff, and students how to identify risk factors and warning signs of suicide. ALR also guides participants through the process of talking to individuals who are at risk and helping them find resources in their area. This is the second in a series of briefs on the most critical public health issues in Missouri higher education. We define critical issues as the behaviors on campus which cause threats to the safety of our students on a daily or weekly basis.

Discussion

During the 20 minute ALR training program, participants learn about signs and symptoms of suicidal behavior, common myths about suicide, how to ask if someone is considering suicide, and how to make trauma-informed resource referrals. Participants are given a pre and post-test to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and willingness to intervene, and they have the opportunity to take 3 follow-up surveys to assess the overall use and effectiveness of the program.

table1Data from ALR participants suggest that it is a promising practice to teach students, faculty, and staff about how to help a friend or student who may be considering suicide. When comparing student, faculty, and staff pre-test and post-test scores, there is a significant rate of change which suggests that individuals are learning more about suicide prevention while taking the training. Out of a possible 40 points, both pre-test and post-test scores ranged almost the entire spectrum from 8 to 40 points. Averaged pre-test scores for the last 66 months of 2015 ranged from 27.3 to 30 points, while averaged post-test scores ranged from 34.6 to 36.9 points. Students and staff showed the greatest increases in scores with both groups having a percent increase of 27%.

table2According to the 2015 MCHBS data, 40% of students reported having ever had suicidal thoughts, and 15% of students reported having suicidal thoughts within the last year. Two percent of Missouri college students reported attempting suicide in the last year, but only 32% of students sought assistance for suicidal thoughts or attempts in the past year. While the majority of students (53%) are still not seeking assistance for suicidal thoughts and attempts, MCHBS data suggests an improvement in the last year, as 67% of students did not seek assistance in 2014. Additionally, 31% of students reported being concerned about a friend having suicidal thoughts and 48% of them reported they would be willing to complete an online suicide prevention training program (ALR). When asked if students were aware of the ALR program, 27% of students answered “yes.” Nineteen percent of students also utilized ALR at least once in the past year, 5% twice and 2% more than twice when concerned about an individual at risk for suicide.

table3Of the 21 PIP campuses, 20 participate in the ALR program. For the purposes of this brief, 5 schools are considered active participants in the ALR program, meaning that they had at least 200 participants from their campus in 2015. Comparing these active schools to the rest of the PIP campuses reveals no difference in suicidal ideation or attempts; however, these students do show an increased awareness of the programs on their campuses. Students at active ALR schools were slightly more likely to report being concerned about a friend having suicidal thoughts in the past year than students from other schools (33% vs. 30%) and were more likely to report having heard of ALR than students from less active schools (36% vs. 24%). Interestingly, students from active ALR schools did not show much difference in their likelihood of discussing suicide with someone at risk of suicide or referring someone at risk to local resources. Some of these differences could be accounted for by higher rates of staff and faculty participation on some campuses, meaning that more outreach to students is needed.

Summary

According to the National Center for Injury Prevention, suicide is the second leading cause of death for college-aged young adults (ages 15-34). With 15% of Missouri students self-reporting suicidal ideations and 31% of students being concerned about a friend within the last year, suicide prevention is a priority for PIP. Furthermore, over 50% of Missouri students said they would likely bring up the topic of suicide with someone who may be at risk. This willingness means Missouri students are at a great starting point when it comes to addressing mental health and improving their own mental health.

Even though students are more likely to turn to their friends first when seeking help, faculty and staff on Missouri college campuses have unique access to students, and these relationships can be utilized to help address mental health issues. Despite the fact that ALR is designed to reach all of these audiences, not all of those who are in a position to intervene with high-risk or at-risk individuals are taking advantage of this resource. For more information, please visit the ALR website at www.asklistenrefer.org.

Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Katie Rogers, Dina van der Zalm, and Xincheng Wang Partners in Prevention Research & Evaluation Staff
Funded by the Missouri Department of Mental Health, Division of Behavioral Health. Original funding for ALR was provided by the Missouri Foundation for Health.

Volume 4, Number 9: Alcohol: Binge-drinking and Negative Consequences

Alcohol: Binge-drinking and Negative Consequences

Missouri Partners in Prevention (PIP) is a statewide coalition of 21 campuses dedicated to creating healthy and safe college and university environments. PIP implements the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS) each year, which helps to measure student health behaviors and perceptions. This is the first in a series of briefs on the most critical public health issues in Missouri higher education. We define critical issues as the behaviors on campus which cause threats to the safety of our students on a daily or weekly basis. Reducing high-risk behaviors, such as binge-drinking*, remains a core focus, despite improvements in trend data since 2011. Analysis of 2015 MCHBS data indicated noticeable differences in binge drinking rates among student groups.

Discussion

4.9_01 Binge-drinking has been linked to many health and behavior issues, including alcohol poisoning, physical assault, sexual abuse, injury, and academic problems. Because of these health and behavior issues, it is a main focus for many campus programs. PIP schools consistently rank below the national average of binge-drinking on college campuses, and PIP schools have seen a 22% reduction in reported binge-drinking rates from 2011 to 2015, with the statewide average decreasing from 31% to 24% in those five years.

Despite this overall positive trend, binge-drinking rates on individual campuses in 2015 ranged from 3% to 37%. When further investigating binge-drinking and risky drinking behaviors, many campuses requested information on specific subpopulations. The most requested groups were students who identified as part of a sorority or fraternity (Greek) versus those who did not (non-Greek), students who identified their race as white or Caucasian (majority) versus students who identified as a minority race (minority)**, student leaders (leaders) versus non-student leaders, and finally student athletes versus non-athletes. Of those groups, students who identified as part of a sorority or fraternity and students who identified their race as white or Caucasian reported the most negative consequences as a result of alcohol consumption. Less significant differences are seen between student athletes and non-athletes and student leaders and non-student leaders. The table below highlights some of the negative consequences of drinking that might impact student health and academic success.

4.9_02

Summary

Because binge-drinking can be associated with many health and behavior concerns among college students, it is important to continually monitor and work to decrease these rates. The 2015 MCHBS reveals encouraging information with the decreasing binge-drinking rates thanks to annual monitoring and positive programs and social norming assisted by Partners in Prevention. However, certain groups, such as students participating in Greek Life on college campuses, continue to have high-rates of binge-drinking and are a higher risk for the negative consequences associated with drinking than their peers.

*For the purpose of this brief, binge-drinking is defined as 5 or more drinks in a 2 hour period.
**Students who identified as American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian, Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, Black or African American, Native Caribbean, Bi-racial or Multi-racial, or Other accounted for less than 19% of the population and were therefore combined into one minority category.

Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Dina van der Zalm and Christine Flores, Partners in Prevention Research & Evaluation Staff
Funded by the Missouri Department of Mental Health, Division of Behavioral Health

Volume 4, Number 8: Sexual Orientation and the Student Experience

Sexual Orientation and the Student Experience

Partners in Prevention (PIP) works with 21 college and university campuses in the state of Missouri to improve student health behaviors. PIP gathers data annually from the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS) to inform and improve campus programs. This brief will focus on students’ sense of belonging and their likelihood of accessing resources both on and off campus, specifically for students who identified as LGBQQ* on the 2015 MCHBS. Students who identified as transgender are not included in this brief unless they also identified their sexual orientation as LGBQQ. As sexual orientation and gender are different constructs, the stressors and experiences of the transgender student population cannot be conflated with those of LGBQQ student population.

Discussion

According to the 2015 MCHBS data, 8.3% of students identified as LGBQQ**. Of those students who identified as LGBQQ, 26% did not feel a sense of belonging on their campuses, compared to 22% of students who identified as heterosexual. Students who identified as LGBQQ were also less likely than their heterosexual peers to report feeling like a member of their campus community (49% compared to 56%).

Since students’ attachment to campus may impact their perceived access to and utilization of resources, the relationship between a student’s sexual orientation and the likelihood of going to specific resources, both on- and off-campus, was explored. While many resources showed no significant difference in likelihood of use, certain resources, such as faculty or professors, mental health professionals in the community, and chat rooms or online support groups, were more likely to be used by students who identified as LGBQQ than those who identified as heterosexual. Conversely, students who identified as LGBQQ reported a lower likelihood of utilizing other resources, such as religious or spiritual advisors, law enforcement, and family members, than their peers who identified as heterosexual.

4.8
*LGBQQ- Lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, or questioning
**8.3% of students who identified a sexual orientation selected an LGBQQ identity. This number does not include the 4.4% of students who chose “prefer not to respond”, likely due to the sensitive nature of this question or the limited options.

Summary

Students who identified as LGBQQ are less likely than their heterosexual peers to report feeling as though they belong on their campuses or that they are active members of their campus communities. Having a dedicated space and staff for LGBQQ students, as well as having an ally group or providing access to online chat and help resources, are factors that could increase these students’ sense of belonging and connection to campus. To date, few PIP campuses are able to provide these resources. Beginning in 2016, the MCHBS will include asexual as a sexual orientation option in an attempt to decrease the high prefer not to respond rate for that question. In the future, campuses may want to consider allowing multiple responses for the sexual orientation question the MCHBS to empower students to select responses that more accurately reflect their identities.

Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Dina van der Zalm and Christine Flores, Partners in Prevention Research & Evaluation Staff, in consultation with Sean Olmstead, LGBTQ Resource Center Coordinator at the University of Missouri
Funded by the Missouri Department of Mental Health, Division of Behavioral Health

Volume 4, Number 7: Prescription & Illicit Drug Misuse

Prescription & Illicit Drug Misuse

Partners in Prevention (PIP) has been Missouri’s higher education substance abuse consortium since 2000. The coalition, made up of 21 universities in Missouri, works to promote healthy behaviors on college campuses. To gain an understanding of the current health behaviors of college students, PIP implements the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS) each year. The information gained from the MCHBS allows PIP to learn more about the high-risk behaviors that students are engaging in, such as illicit and prescription drug misuse.

Discussion

Prescription drug misuse, defined as using prescription drugs without a doctor’s consent, has been decreasing over the last 8 years from 21% in 2008 to 14% in 2015. Conversely, there has been a small increase in students who report using illicit drugs (other than marijuana) from 5.7% in 2009 to 6.5% in 2015.

4.7_01

The most commonly misused prescription drugs were stimulants (7.5%) and pain medication (6.9%), followed by sedative/anxiety medication (3.1%). Of the 6.5% of students previously mentioned who used illicit drugs, 3.8% reported using amphetamines, 3.0% reported using club drugs, 2.8% reported using cocaine, and inhalants, K2, and methamphetamines were each reported at 1.2%. Approximately 4.5% of students reporting misusing both prescription and illicit drugs (other than marijuana) in the last year. More than 75% of students who reported using marijuana in the last year did not use any other drugs; however, over 80% of students who reported any other drug usage also used marijuana. The data suggests that while marijuana use cannot be used to predict other drug use, misuse of prescription or illicit drugs is a strong predictor of marijuana use.

Summary

About 16% of Missouri college students are using some form of prescription or illicit drug. Most of these students are misusing prescription drugs, not illicit drugs. However, it is important to note that the majority of students who use illicit drugs are also misusing prescription drugs and using marijuana, meaning there is a small but high-risk subpopulation of polydrug users among Missouri college students. For campus programming and planning purposes, it may be important to note that stimulants and pain medications are misused significantly more often than other prescription drugs. Beginning in 2016, the MCHBS will collect data on students who misuse their own prescription drugs and the overlap of misusing prescription drugs while consuming alcohol.

Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Adam Dietrich, Dina van der Zalm & Dan Reilly Partners in Prevention Research & Evaluation Staff
Funded by the Missouri Department of Mental Health, Division of Behavioral Health

Volume 4, Number 6: An update on texting and driving among Missouri College students

An update on texting and driving among Missouri College students

Partners in Prevention, a coalition of 21 colleges and universities across the state, is dedicated to reducing high-risk behaviors among Missouri college students. Several risky behaviors involve distracted driving, which includes texting or talking on the phone while driving, eating or drinking while driving, speeding, and becoming angry while driving. Texting while driving is one of the most dangerous behaviors because it encompasses the three main types of distraction – visual, manual and cognitive. It also reduces the driver’s focus from the road more frequently and for longer periods than other distractions (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [NHTSA]).

Trend results from the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS) indicate that despite decreases in texting and driving behavior since 2012, texting and driving remains a prevalent risk behavior among Missouri college students.

4.6_01

Discussion

NHTSA reports that at least one out of every 10 traffic fatalities is a result of distracted driving; therefore, it is important that campuses continue to monitor and educate students on multiple facets of traffic safety, including distracted driving.

Since the MCHBS first began measuring texting and driving behavior in 2010, a little more than a third of Missouri college students have reported this behavior each year. Texting and driving peaked in 2012 with 44% of students reporting this behavior. By 2014, texting and driving dropped to the lowest recorded rates of 32%. However, in the past year there has been a gradual increase to 35%.

4.6_02

When compared to other dangerous driving behaviors, students are texting and driving at much higher rates than they are driving without seatbelts or drinking and driving. Additionally, while we have observed reductions in other driving behaviors over the past two years, texting and driving has remained relatively constant. Interestingly, students who report texting while driving also report all the other distracted driving behaviors at much higher levels.

Students who text and drive are...
  1. 73% more likely to talk on a cell phone
  2. 45% more likely to go 10 mph or more over the speed limit
  3. 40% more likely to change a musical component
  4. 40% more likely to eat or drink while driving
  5. 32% more likely to drive while drowsy
  6. 31% more likely to become angry at other drivers
  7. 13% more likely to not wear a seatbelt

Summary

Continued monitoring indicates reductions in risky driving behaviors and, specifically, texting while driving. While there appear to be significant improvements since 2012, texting and driving is still disproportionately high compared to other dangerous behaviors, such as impaired driving and driving without a safety belt. It is important for campuses to continue efforts to educate their students about the dangers of text messaging and driving.

Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Dina van der Zalm, Partners in Prevention Research & Evaluation Staff
Funded by the Missouri Department of Mental Health, Division of Behavioral Health

Volume 4, Number 5: Students in Recovery

Students in Recovery

4.5_01 Partners in Prevention (PIP) is a consortium of 21 colleges and universities in Missouri dedicated to creating safe and healthy campuses. Since 2007, PIP has been annually implementing the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS) to gather information about student demographics, alcohol use, drug use, and other health behaviors. Beginning in 2014, the MCHBS added questions for students who identify as sober and in recovery from alcohol and other drug addiction to better understand their experiences on campus. This brief will focus on responses from students who identified as sober and in recovery on the 2015 MCHBS, highlight the work being done on PIP campuses to support these students, and include feedback from a recent focus group with the University of Missouri-Columbia’s Sober in College (SIC), one of the current collegiate recovery programs in Missouri.

Discussion

The prevalence of students at Missouri colleges and universities who identify as sober and in recovery varies widely among PIP schools, from 3-12%, with an average of 5% statewide. Also, a relatively large percent of students (4%) responded “prefer not to respond” to this question. Slightly more of these students disagree that they are a member of their campuses (21%) or that they feel a sense of belonging (24%) than the overall student population does (20% and 22%, respectively). Students who identify as sober and in recovery report wanting to feel more connected to their campuses than the overall student population (68% vs 54%). This difference in desire for increased connection to their campus communities could reflect an unmet need for creating supportive spaces and communities for students who are sober and in recovery on campus.

What students in recovery want administrators to know…
  1. There are more of us than you know or expect.
  2. Because of the stigma placed on addiction in a college environment, making resources available for people to talk about their experiences, hear other people’s experiences, and have fun is essential.
  3. Sometimes we struggle just as much as other students with tests, projects, and life in general, and sometimes it seems more difficult to pass that test without thinking of drinking/using on top of it.
  4. We are willing and prepared to work just as hard if not harder to do well.
  5. Mood swings and off days are common, even in long term recovery.
  6. If a student leaves class, it is not because they don’t care. There is likely something VERY important going on.
  7. Our “social lives” are actually really important.
  8. Being connected to other people like us can make or break our recovery.

4.5_02 Despite the majority of students in recovery feeling connected to their campuses and like members of their college communities, one in three (33%) students in recovery reported considering transferring from their current college or university and 16% have thought about discontinuing their education entirely. In comparison, 25% of students who do not identify as sober and in recovery reported considering leaving their current college or university, and 14% have thought about discontinuing their education. In order to better understand what factors influence these students’ sense of belonging and membership on campus, as well as what impacts their decisions to stay enrolled, more questions will be asked to this subpopulation on the 2016 MCHBS.

Summary

One of the ways that campuses can increase success and retention of students in recovery is by ensuring the campus climate is supportive. Currently, six PIP schools have active collegiate recovery programs, each using a different model tailored to suit the needs of that campus and their students. This year, PIP began a new initiative to support these schools. MACRO, the Missouri Alliance of Collegiate Recovery Organizations, is the first organization of its kind in the state of Missouri to create a statewide network for growing and enhancing collegiate recovery support services. Its mission is to unite collegiate recovery efforts across the state and to be a top resource for Missouri schools as they build their own recovery support organizations. In doing so, we hope to increase the capacity of colleges and universities in Missouri to address recovery on their campuses, and in their communities. MACRO is currently housed at the University of Missouri-Columbia. More information can be found online at macro.missouri.edu.

Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Dina van der Zalm, Partners in Prevention Research & Evaluation Staff
Funded by the Missouri Department of Mental Health, Division of Behavioral Health

Volume 4, Number 4: Relationship Abuse

Relationship Abuse

As Missouri’s consortium in preventing higher education substance abuse, Partners in Prevention promotes healthy behaviors on college campuses. PIP implements the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS) in order to gain a better understanding of health behaviors and experiences on campuses across Missouri. The survey also gathers information on the prevalence of relationship abuse experienced by Missouri college students.

Discussion

Relationship abuse is a pattern of assaultive and coercive behaviors an intimate partner may use in order to gain and maintain power and control. In the 2015 MCHBS, we measured reports of several types of intimate partner abuse, including emotional-verbal, sexual, physical, mental and financial. The most common forms of abuse and those discussed in this brief include emotional, mental and physical intimate partner abuse. Sexual abuse will be addressed in subsequent briefs.

4.4_01 Emotional abuse includes a broad category of behavior and is the most common form of abuse reported by Missouri college students. Some forms of emotional abuse are name-calling, put-downs, threats, intimidation, doing anything to win an argument, and blaming the partner for relationship failures*. Sixteen percent (16%) of Missouri college students report ever experiencing emotional abuse and 9% in the past year. Mental abuse, also referred to as psychological abuse, is the second most common form of abuse reported by Missouri college students. It includes behaviors such as isolating individuals from friends and family, controlling where individuals go and what they do, ignoring feelings, and being forced to perform acts perceived as degrading**. Thirteen (13%) percent of Missouri college students report ever experiencing mental abuse and 7% in the past year. Physical abuse is the least common form of abuse reported and includes but is not limited to pushing, strangling, hitting, punching, slapping, kicking, preventing individuals from eating or drinking, and keeping individuals from seeking medical care***. Five (5%) percent of Missouri college students report ever experiencing physical abuse and 2% in the past year.

Summary

A substantial proportion of our students report intimate partner abuse on our campuses. At any point in their life, 42% of our students report abuse. Additionally, 23% of students report that they have experienced some form of intimate partner abuse in the past year.

*Psychological Abuse. Center For Relationship Abuse Awareness. (n.d.). Retrieved July 21, 2015.
**Physical Abuse. Center For Relationship Abuse Awareness. (n.d.). Retrieved July 21, 2015.
***Emotional Abuse. Center For Relationship Abuse Awareness. (n.d.). Retrieved July 21, 2015.

stoprelationshipabuse.org/educated/types-of-abuse/psychological-abuse/
stoprelationshipabuse.org/educated/types-of-abuse/physical-abuse/
stoprelationshipabuse.org/educated/types-of-abuse/emotional-abuse/

Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Katie Rogers, Partners in Prevention Research & Evaluation Staff
Funded by the Missouri Department of Mental Health, Division of Behavioral Health

Volume 4, Number 3: Marijuana Use

Marijuana Use

The Missouri College Health Survey (MCHBS) is distributed annually to 21 campuses in the state of Missouri by Partners in Prevention (PIP). PIP is Missouri’s higher education substance abuse consortium and is dedicated to promoting health and wellness on campuses statewide. The MCHBS collects data on several different student health behaviors, including the use of marijuana. According to the 2015 MCHBS, 23% of Missouri college students reported using marijuana in the past year.

Discussion

The MCHBS data show that the self-reported actual use of marijuana is drastically different than how students perceive the use of others. Data shows that while reported marijuana use over the last three years has remained relatively constant around 23%, the perception students have of other people’s use has decreased and leveled off. In 2013, students perceived that 92% of their peers had used marijuana in the last year. For the past two years, this perception decreased to 81%. Since 2013, the data shows an increase of actual marijuana use from 22% to 23%. In the last three years, perceptions about the frequency of other’s marijuana use began to change. Students reported a perception of 14% of students using marijuana 3 or more times a week in 2014; however, that same perception dropped to 6% in 2015. In 2013, students perceived/believed that 13% of students used marijuana 1-6 times per year, which has increased by 250% to 32% this year.

4.3_01

Summary

Through the growing discussion on the legalization of marijuana, this topic remains a staple in the discussion of student wellness. The high perception of use by other people may also contribute to the slowly increasing rate of reported use, even though the perceived rate is decreasing. Over the course of the last few years, there has been a slight increase in reported marijuana use that has coincided with a significant drop in how much students perceive their peers to be using marijuana. Between 2014 and 2015 the trend for the perceived use of other students has leveled off at a low of 81%. More updates can be found at pip.missouri.edu/research.html as future data is collected.

Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Dina van der Zalm and Adam Dietrich, Partners in Prevention Research & Evaluation Staff
Funded by the Missouri Department of Mental Health, Division of Behavioral Health

Volume 4, Number 2: Tobacco Policy

Tobacco Policy

Missouri Partners in Prevention (PIP) implements the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS) each year to monitor student behaviors and perceptions on a variety of health and safety topics, including tobacco use and policy. Of the 21 campuses that are part of the PIP consortium, 9 are tobacco free (6 campuses with newer tobacco free policies and 3 with tobacco policies for 3 or more years), 5 are smoke free, and 7 have somewhat restrictive policies, meaning they may only have indoor policies or designated outdoor smoking areas available on campus. It is important to note that some campuses will implement tobacco free policies this fall, but their data from the 2015 MCHBS is categorized in the somewhat restrictive policy category.

Discussion

According to the 2015 MCHBS, 80% of students statewide prefer having smoke-free outdoor university areas. Student perceptions of smoking have greatly changed in the last four years, as 2012 MCHBS data showed that only 58% of students statewide preferred having smoke-free outdoor areas on campus. Since 2013, the number of students not using tobacco products has increased, while the number of those using cigarettes has steadily decreased. However, other products are becoming more popular with tobacco users. For example, hookah use increased 43% from 2012 to 2015 (14% to 20%), and e-cigarette use is up 300% (3% to 12%) statewide since 2012. Tobacco pipes and smokeless tobacco use have remained relatively stable statewide since 2010, but certain campuses saw a noticeable increase for one or both of these products in 2015.

4.2_01

How much does school policy influence students’ tobacco use? In order to answer this question, schools were categorized by type of tobacco policy in the following groups: tobacco free policy, tobacco free policy for at least three years, smoke-free policy and somewhat restrictive policy. Type of school policy was compared to any tobacco use in the past year, which includes the full spectrum of students who perhaps tried hookah once or twice with friends to those who use cigarettes or smokeless tobacco on a daily basis.

4.2_02 Perhaps unexpectedly, schools with tobacco free policies have a higher average of tobacco use (38%) than the statewide average (36%). There are several potential influencing factors for this high rate of use. Some schools very recently changed policy and may be facing some resistance to that change or haven’t had time to see any behavior change from what happened under their somewhat restrictive policies. These campuses may also have more infrequent tobacco product users that are inflating that statistic. A better indicator of the effect of tobacco free policy is the group of schools that have had policies in place for three or more years. Students from schools with established tobacco free policies reported statistically significant lower tobacco use than any other group. According to the data, there is no difference in tobacco use on campuses with smoke free policies versus those with only somewhat restrictive policies.

Summary

The MCHBS data seems to support the argument that tobacco free policies, which are the most restrictive, result in lower rates of tobacco use on campuses once they have been in place long enough to be recognized and enforced. The trend of preferring smoke-free indoor and outdoor areas continues to gain popularity with students at schools across the state, but data suggests that student behavior is not significantly impacted by smoke-free policies. It is possible that campuses with newer smoke-free policies face similar challenges as those that recently transitioned to tobacco free policy, or that implementation and enforcement of smoke-free policy pose unique challenges. Certain campuses and student behaviors around the state may also be influenced by city tobacco policies more so than campus policy. Because quitting tobacco products requires challenging behavior change, it can take several years before the benefits of policy change are evident in student behavior. As more campuses statewide switch to tobacco free policies and those already tobacco free campuses continue to consistently enforce their existing policies, this trend will be re-evaluated.

Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Dina van der Zalm, Partners in Prevention Research & Evaluation Staff
Funded by the Missouri Department of Mental Health, Division of Behavioral Health

Volume 4, Number 1: A Look Ahead: Volume 4

A Look Ahead: Volume 4

Since 2000, Missouri Partners in Prevention (PIP) has been providing training, funding and technical assistance to member campuses dedicated to creating healthy and safe college and university environments. While the focus of our statewide coalition has been on preventing high-risk and underage drinking among Missouri’s college students, the coalition is also dedicated to addressing other health behaviors such as prescription drug use, high-risk driving, tobacco use, and problem gambling. In addition, PIP also provides support and services to campuses across the state to prevent suicide and support positive mental health among college students. In the past year, Partners in Prevention has begun exploring two new growth areas: helping campuses regarding compliance with Title IX regulations and addressing the needs of students in recovery.

Last year, PIP provided the Missouri higher education community with a series of thirteen research briefs. These briefs highlighted the range of health behaviors, including high-risk drinking, driving behaviors, and health behaviors of subpopulations of students. In addition, the briefs provided information about current work being implemented in the state to address these behaviors. PIP is pleased to provide Missouri campuses with the fourth volume of research briefs. Briefs will be published monthly and include additional examination of the health behavior of subpopulations of students as well as additional key metrics of the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey, such as students’ sense of belonging and student engagement. PIP will continue to examine key health behavior issues such as alcohol, drug, and tobacco use, driving behaviors, and mental health, along with new topics, such as interpersonal violence and addressing the needs of students in recovery.

PIP has made tremendous progress since its inception in 2000. National research in college prevention is clear - campus prevention efforts that are evidence-based, comprehensive and are supported by campus administrators are the most effective strategies to reduce high risk and underage drinking and the associated negative consequences among college students. While binge and high risk drinking rates have been static nationally, Missouri rates have dropped drastically from 34% in 2007 to 24% in 2015. PIP encourages campus leaders to be vocal, visible, and visionary on issues related to alcohol, drugs, and mental health. The goal of Volume Four of the Partners in Prevention briefs is to assist campus’ understanding of the key issues facing Missouri college students, as well as how campuses are working to create healthier and safer campus communities.

Look for These Topics to be addressed in Volume Four of the PIP Brief Series:

  • The Role of Alcohol in Student Retention
  • Campus Policy Enforcement
  • Emerging Issues for Student Veterans
  • Perceptions of Peer Drinking and Social Norms
  • Parental Approval of Prescription Drug Misuse
  • Marijuana Use and Abuse by College Students
  • Emerging Issues for Students of Color
  • Emerging Health and Safety Issues for LGBQQ students
Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Christine Hannan, Partners in Prevention Research & Evaluation Staff
Funded by the Missouri Department of Mental Health, Division of Behavioral Health

Volume 5

Click on a brief for more information!


Volume 5, Number 8: Alcohol-Impaired Driving

Alcohol-Impaired Driving

Partners in Prevention (PIP) is a statewide coalition of 21 public and private colleges in Missouri with the mission of building safe and healthy campuses. PIP gathers data from the Missouri Assessment of College Health Behaviors (MACHB) survey in order to assess high-risk behaviors occurring amongst college students. Data from the MACHB can be utilized to gain an understanding of programs that are currently established to inform individuals about the consequences of impaired driving.

Discussion

According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), 2% of Missouri drivers have reported that they have driven while intoxicated.1 In 2014, there were 5,976 alcohol- related crashes in the state of Missouri; 189 of which were fatal; resulting in 205 deaths caused by intoxicated driving.2 Research continues to demonstrate the ongoing issue of impaired driving and the importance of educating individuals about the possible consequences that may occur from their actions.

Prevalence

While the majority of college students in Missouri reported no past impaired driving, the possible consequences of driving while under the influences are severe, which promotes the necessity of eliminating the risk.

table581 According to the 2016 MACHB survey, approximately 21% of students reported driving a motor vehicle after consuming alcohol in the past year. The range of students who reported drinking and driving was from 7% to 34% across all PIP institutions. A small percentage of students reported driving after drinking one (7%) or two (5%) times in the past year. However, 4% of students who reported drinking and driving did so 6 or more times. Of the students who reported drinking and driving, less than 1% of them reported facing consequences such as receiving a DUI/DWI.

Designated Drivers

table582A promising approach to lower the incidences of driving under the influence is to utilize designated drivers. The MACHB allows students to identify what they believe it means to be a designated driver. 85% believe it is someone who has not had any alcoholic beverages, 15% define it as someone who has had a couple of alcoholic beverages, and 1% stated it is the least intoxicated person in the group. Further, only 48% of Missouri students reported that they always utilize a designated driver when partying, and 52% of the time that driver is a friend or acquaintance. Several campuses have developed strategies to increase the number of designated drivers for undergraduate students.

Programs

CHEERS
CHEERS was designed to increase the number of designated drivers throughout the state of Missouri. The program allows participating bars, restaurants, and nightclubs to provide free non-alcoholic beverages to the designated driver in a group of two or more. Establishment owners across Missouri have been invited to join CHEERS in order to create a safer environment while drinking. Find us online at cheers.missouri.edu or on Facebook @projectcheers.

Drive Safe, Drive Smart
The Missouri Department of Transportation and colleges involved in PIP are working to promote safe driving amid college students in the state of Missouri. DSDS is a campaign that works to reach students through social media, tabling events, and online educational materials. The main goal of DSDS is to encourage students to make smart decisions behind the wheel and to be active bystanders when others are driving. Currently, DSDS has billboard campaigns throughout the state that encourage individuals to designate a responsible texter and a sober driver. Find us online at drivesafedrivesmart.missouri.edu or on Facebook @modrivesafedrivesmart.

SMART and SMART Live
The State of Missouri Alcohol Responsibility Training (SMART) is a free, interactive, web-based responsible beverage service program available to those who own or work for any Missouri establishment licensed to sell alcohol. The training focuses on recognition of fake ID’s, acceptable forms of identification, prevention of service to minors and intoxicated individuals, and more. Users who pass the training exam gain a certification that is valid for 2 years. To access the online training visit smart.missouri.edu.

SMART Live is an in-person version of the training, held in 4 locations throughout Missouri. The next SMART Live training will be held April 5, 2017 in Platte County – registration required, smart.missouri.edu/live.

Law Enforcement Trainings
PIP works with surrounding community law enforcement officers to ensure that they are receiving trainings regarding subjects like alcohol- impaired driving. Trainings are available at this year’s regional conference, Meeting of the Minds, in Kansas City, Missouri. Scholarships for public safety/law enforcement officials who work to prevent impaired driving and underage drinking and enforce underage drinking laws are invited to apply. Registration available at mom.missouri.edu.

1Center for Disease Control (2013). Sobering Facts: Drunk Driving in Missouri. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/motorvehiclesafety/ pdf/impaired_driving/drunk_driving_in_mo.pdf
2Missouri State Highway Patrol Statistical Analysis Center (2016). Crashes by Alcohol Involvement. Retrieved from: http://www.mshp. dps.missouri.gov/MSHPWeb/SAC/crash_data_alcohol_960grid.html

Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Alyssa Johnson & Shannon Braida, Partners in Prevention Evaluation Sta at the University of Missouri. Data prepared by Dong Ding.

Volume 5, Number 7: Underage Drinking

Underage Drinking

Partners in Prevention (PIP) is a statewide coalition of 21 public and private colleges in Missouri with the mission of building safe and healthy campuses. PIP gathers data from the Missouri Assessment of College Health Behaviors (MACHB) survey in order to assess high-risk behaviors occurring among college students. Data from the MACHB can be utilized to gain an understanding of programs that are currently established to inform individuals about the prevalence of underage drinking.

Discussion

According to a comprehensive article detailing underage student drinking habits, about half of the alcohol consumed at four year colleges is consumed by students under the legal drinking age of 21.1 It is important to understand why underage students are drinking to create effective prevention efforts, and to lower the overall binge-drinking and alcohol consumption rate. Efforts on campus can also lessen the incidences of students harming themselves and others from the use of alcohol.

Prevalence

According to data from the 2016 MACHB, about 49% of underage students had consumed alcohol least one time in the past 30 days, with 8% of underage drinkers choosing to drink 10-20 of those 30 days. Binge-drinking (consuming 5+ drinks over a two hour period anytime within the previous two weeks) among underage drinkers is also an issue on college campuses. Approximately 24% of underage students in Missouri reported binge-drinking.

The survey identified that underage students consume alcohol most frequently at a social gathering/friend’s house (77%) and where they live (39%). The results are similar when focusing on pre-partying; with 47% indicating pre-partying at a social gathering/friend’s house and 26% indicating drinking at their own residence. Further, students stated they were able to access alcohol most frequently from an over 21 year old friend (46%), using a fake ID (9%), going to a place where they know IDs are not checked (9%), or from fraternity or sorority houses (7%). Of the 9% of underage drinkers whom reported utilizing a fake ID, 59% indicated they have never been denied while purchasing alcohol.

Why Underage Students Are Drinking

table571 When prompted to indicate reasons for drinking, nearly 84% of underage drinkers chose ‘I want to have fun with friends’. Other popular answers were; ‘I want to relax (49%)’ and ‘I like how it makes me feel (36%)’. As seen in the PIP Social Norm brief (pip.missouri.edu/docs/briefs/PIP_5_5.pdf), there is a large misconception with the frequency of alcohol consumption and the amount of drinks typical students have while they drink. It can be inferred that college students may perceive drinking to be the ‘norm’ and the typical way to meet new people and spend quality time with friends. This may suggest the need for educating college students on safe drinking behaviors and the influence of social norms.

1 Wechsler, H., Lee, J. E., Nelson, T. F., & Kuo, M. (2002). Underage college students’ drinking behavior, access to alcohol, and the influence of deterrence policies: Findings from the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study. Journal of American College Health, 50(5), 223–236.

Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Alyssa Johnson & Luke Daily, as well as the Partners in Prevention Evaluation Staff at the University of Missouri.

Volume 5, Number 6: Anxiety, Stress, and Suicide

Anxiety, Stress, and Suicide

Partners in Prevention (PIP) is a statewide coalition of 21 public and private colleges in Missouri with the mission of building safe and healthy campuses. PIP gathers data from the Missouri Assessment of College and Health Behaviors (MACHB) survey in order to assess high-risk behaviors occurring amongst college students. Data from the MACHB can be utilized to better understand how and why students are contemplating dying by suicide.

Discussion

According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), suicide is the second highest cause of death in individuals ages 15-24. This indicates that college students are in a particularly high risk group when it comes to dying by suicide. It is critical for college administrators, faculty, sta , and students to understand how to assist students who are contemplating suicide so that students are able to get the assistance they need.

Prevalence

According to the Missouri Assessment of College Health and Behavior (MACHB), 17% of Missouri college students contemplated suicide in the past year and 2% of students attempted suicide in the past year. Ages of these students ranged from 18-25 years or older, but the most significant ages that students were contemplating suicide were 18 (22%) and 23 (23%). However, the average number of students contemplating suicide that fell into the range of ages 19-22 was approximately 17%.

Relation to Anxiety and Stress

table561 According to the MACHB, 47% of Missouri college students reported having anxiety in the last year. Of the students who reported having suicidal thoughts, 76% of them also said that they experienced anxiety. 58% of students who reported facing a considerable or great deal of stress concerning their personal lives also experienced suicidal thoughts. This means more than half of students who have contemplated suicide are facing a great deal of stress in their personal lives. 45% of the students who reported having suicidal thoughts also reported facing a considerable or great deal of stress concerning its impact on their academics. Almost half of students who are having suicidal thoughts can also be struggling academically when they may or may not have done so before.

Programs and Education

Ask. Listen. Refer.
Ask. Listen. Refer. is an online suicide prevention training tool that is accessible by students, staff, and faculty for free through Partners in Prevention. It is an introductory suicide prevention training program that can help users learn the basics of suicide prevention and provides resources specific to Missouri. The training can be accessed at www.asklistenrefer.org.

RESPOND Training
While RESPOND training is not offered specifically through Partners in Prevention, it is a recommended training for PIP institutions. It is an 8 hour, in person training empowering participants to recognize and effectively support and refer a person experiencing a mental health challenge or crisis. If you are interested in more information about this training, contact us at pip.missouri.edu.

Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Alyssa Johnson & Luke Daily, as well as the Partners in Prevention Evaluation Staff at the University of Missouri.

Volume 5, Number 5: Social Norms (Revised November 2016)

Social Norms

Partners in Prevention (PIP) is a statewide coalition of 21 public and private colleges and universities in Missouri with the mission of building safe and healthy campuses. PIP tracks e orts to reduce high-risk behaviors with trend data gathered through the annual implementation of the Missouri Assessment of College Health Behaviors (MACHB) survey. It is common on college campuses for students to miscalculate the frequency and severity of other student’s high-risk behaviors. Thus, social norm questions have been added to the MACHB in order to assess perceived versus actual behavior on campus amongst students.

Discussion

table551 There are several sections on the MACHB that review social norms on campus. Three of the most concerning topics on the MACHB are alcohol consumption on a typical night, illicit drug use, and sexual health due to the large gap between perceived and actual behaviors amid college students. When referring to sexual health, 76% of individuals indicated that they have had 0 or 1 sexual partners in the past year. However, when asked how many sexual partners they believed other students have had; only 16% selected 0 or 1. Conversely, 52% believed their fellow peers had 3 or more partners in the past year, whereas the actual amount reported is 14%.

Further, for marijuana usage, approximately 77% of students did not use over the past year. However, students completing the survey indicated that they believe only 16% of their fellow peers have not used marijuana in the past year. When indicating misuse of prescription drugs, 17% indicating using prescription drugs 1 or more times, whereas participants rated 75% of ‘typical students’ to abuse prescription drugs at least once over the past year.

table552 The MACHB allows students to indicate their average intake of alcohol on a typical night of drinking. Students rated themselves as having around 2.6 drinks in a night, while contrarily rating others on campus much higher; friends at 4 drinks, typical students at 4.4 drinks, and fraternity/sorority members at an overwhelming 6.3 drinks.

Summary

Currently, several campaigns across Missouri are speaking out about misperceived social norms on campus, and how they may be impacting the harmful behaviors of college students. Posters and graphics demonstrating accurate data have become a common method of explaining social norms on campus in order to validate the frequent misconceptions that many students have towards fellow peers. For more information, please visit pip.missouri.edu/sn.html.

Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Shannon Braida and L.M. Daily, Partners in Prevention Evaluation Sta at the University of Missouri.

Volume 5, Number 4: Marijuana (Revised October 2016)

Marijuana

Partners in Prevention (PIP) is a statewide coalition of 21 public and private colleges in Missouri with the mission of building safe and healthy campuses. PIP gathers data from the Missouri Assessment of College and Health Behaviors (MACHB) survey in order to assess high-risk behaviors occurring amongst college students. Data from the MACHB can be utilized to gain an understanding of programs that are currently established to inform individuals about marijuana use as well as the use of other drugs on college and university campuses.

Discussion

According to the National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol Use and Related Disorders, it was found that adults who reported marijuana use during the first wave of the survey were more likely than non-users to develop an alcohol use disorder within 3 years. It was also found that marijuana users who already had an alcohol use disorder at the outset were at greater risk of their alcohol use disorder worsening (1). While marijuana is not the only substance that is correlated to users experimenting additionally with other substances, the ability for it to do so makes it critical for college and universities to continue to provide ongoing education about it.

Prevalence

According to data recorded from the 2016 MACHB Survey, 24% of Missouri college students have reported using marijuana at least once in the past year. Most of the students who are using also reported that when they used marijuana it was done at a friend’s house or social gathering (67%), in a car (46%), or in an apartment or house (46%). While campus is not the primary location for marijuana use to take place, it is still important that faculty and staff all play a role in helping to educate students about marijuana use so they can make better informed choices.

Marijuana in Conjunction with Other Drugs

table541 Data collected from the 2016 MACHB also notes that 52% of students that have binge drank (5+ drinks in a 2 hour period) in the last year have also used marijuana in the last year as well. 90% of students who have used cocaine in the last year have used marijuana and 66% of students who have used amphetamines in the last year have also used marijuana. However, 55% of students who are using prescription drugs are using marijuana at least once in the past year.

PIP Resources

The following links are for brochures and fact sheets that contain more information about marijuana use, side effects, and other material concerning marijuana and drug use. These can be used for educational use by any PIP institution.

  1. pip.missouri.edu/Marijuana
  2. pip.missouri.edu/docs/PDFs/Marijuana.pdf
  3. pip.missouri.edu/docs/PDFs/Parents.pdf

¹ Weinberger AH, Platt J, Goodwin RD. Is cannabis use associated with an increased risk of onset and persistence of alcohol use disorders? A three-year prospective study among adults in the United States. Drug Alcohol Depend. February 2016. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.01.014.
Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Alyssa Johnson, Adam Dietrich, and the Partners in Prevention Evaluation Staff at the University of Missouri. Data prepared by Dong Ding.

Volume 5, Number 3: Alcohol Use Amongst the LGBQQ Population

Alcohol Use Amongst the LGBQQ Population

As Missouri’s consortium in preventing higher education substance abuse, Partners in Prevention (PIP) promotes healthy behaviors on college campuses. PIP implements the Missouri Assessment of College Health Behaviors (MACHB), previously referred to as the Missouri College Health and Behavior Survey, in order to gain a better understanding of health behaviors and experiences on campuses across Missouri. This brief will focus on alcohol use of students, primarily those whom identify as LGBQQ. Students who identified as transgender are not included in this brief, unless they also reported their sexual orientation as LGBQQ. As sexual orientation and gender are different constructs, the stressors and experiences of the transgender student population cannot be conflated with those of LGBQQ student population.

Discussion

It is commonly recognized that marginalized groups, such as LGBQQ (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Queer, and Questioning) individuals, tend to have a high rate of substance use and abuse.1 This may be due to chronic stress from discrimination that lead to substance use and other mental and physical health consequences.1 Utilizing data from the MACHB, significant differences amongst alcohol and drug consumption between the LGBQQ population and heteronormative individuals on college campuses are visible. For example, 8% of heterosexual college students across Missouri began drinking at age 14 or before, whereas the rate for LGBQQ individuals is much higher. Individuals that identify as lesbian and bisexual reported 17%, gay individuals reported 11%, and queer students indicated 15%. Further, the MACHB allows students to indicate their reasoning for consuming alcohol on a regular basis. One selection is, “In order to forget my problems”, which is significantly higher in individuals whom are LGBQQ. 12% of heterosexual students reported this as their reasoning, while it is nearly double for all LGBQQ populations (lesbian-23%, gay-22%, bisexual-25%, queer-20%, and questioning-23%).table531

As seen in the August PIP brief, students in recovery account for approximately 7% of the Missouri college campus population. When considering LGBQQ individuals, this number is higher for bisexual (10%), questioning (9%), and queer (8%) individuals. The number for gay and lesbian students is around 6%, which is still slightly higher than heterosexual (5%) college students in Missouri. This information allows campuses to recognize the importance of providing treatment options for students in recovery, with a special focus on marginalized groups on campus.

Summary

Due to the consistently higher rates of alcohol consumption from individuals who identify as LGBQQ, campuses across Missouri should develop programs that address responsible drinking behaviors. Further, based on the sense of belonging questions on the MACHB, LGBQQ students indicated that they do not feel like a member of the campus at the same level as heterosexual individuals. For instance, 65% of heterosexual students reported feeling as though they are a member of campus, whereas lesbian (54%), bisexual (60%), and questioning (50%) students reported far lower rates of belonging. In response to the large number of students who report drinking in order to forget their problems, programs could focus on appropriate coping skills and other ways to allow LGBQQ individuals to feel a higher sense of belonging on campus.

¹ Ahern, J., Stuber, J., & Galea, S. (2007). Stigma, discrimination and the health of illicit drug users. Drug and alcohol dependence, 88(2), 188-196.
Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Shannon Braida and L.M. Daily, Partners in Prevention Evaluation Staff at the University of Missouri. In consultation with the coordinator of the MU LGBTQ Center, Sean Olmstead.

Volume 5, Number 2: Students in Recovery

Students in Recovery

As Missouri’s consortium in preventing higher education substance abuse, Partners in Prevention (PIP) promotes healthy behaviors on college campuses. PIP implements the Missouri Assessment of College Health Behaviors (MACHB) survey, previously referred to as the Missouri College Health and Behavior Survey, in order to gain a better understanding of health behaviors and experiences on campuses across Missouri. Several questions were added to the 2016 MACHB that target students whom identify themselves as sober and in recovery.

Prevalence

Approximately 4% of students across Missouri identify themselves as sober and in recovery, with an additional 3% reporting “prefer not to respond” (PNR). PNR may take on a different significance with the tradition or anonymity philosophies practiced by some recovery approaches. Thus, between 4% to 7% of Missouri college students report being in recovery from an alcohol or drug addiction.

table521 This year the MACHB included additional questions for students in recovery focusing on the recovery resources available and the general campus environment. Initial findings indicate that students who are sober and in recovery were less likely to choose ‘friends’, and more likely to select ‘no one’ than the general student population when seeking help and support. Conversely, students who have experienced substance abuse or dependency have a higher rate of seeking assistance from the University Counseling Center (15%) or an inpatient psychiatric facility (4%) for treatment. Students in recovery also had significantly lower stress levels in the past two weeks (67%) compared to the general population (74%) when choices of stressed /overwhelmed/stress is unbearable are listed.

table522 Currently, there are seven active recovery programs at PIP campuses. Most of the programs have begun within the past two years. State-wide, individuals that indicated they are sober and in recovery had a low participation rate in collegiate recovery programs. When assessing campuses that have established on-campus recovery programs, only 21% of students who identify as sober and in recovery have utilized these services. This may be due to the novelty of recovery programs and lack of awareness across campus. For students who participated in the on-campus recovery program, the levels of stress in the past two weeks was lower (53%) compared to individuals in recovery that were not participating (69%). Further, when indicating a sense of belonging on campus, students in recovery who participating in the on-campus recovery program had higher selections of ‘agree’ and ‘strongly agree’ (52%) than individuals who did not participate (43%).

table523 There are a variety of popular treatment modalities that are utilized for substance dependency. The results were varying for students who identified as sober and in recovery about which method they preferred, with 30% indicating moderation management, 28% indicating 12 Step approaches, and 13% selecting treatment based. A large portion of students (29%) selected ‘Other’ with open text responses indicating a majority of students utilizing religion or religious- based treatments for their recovery process.

Campus Recovery Communities

The Missouri Alliance of Collegiate Recovery Organization (MACRO), works with several Missouri colleges and universities to establish recovery programs for college students. MACRO’s mission is to unite collegiate recovery efforts across the state, and to be a top resource for Missouri schools as they build their own recovery support organizations. In doing so, MACRO, hopes to increase the capacity of colleges and universities to support recovery in their communities and on their campus. To date, seven schools have implemented recovery programs on campus. Over the last year, one new collegiate recovery organization was added to MACRO, and there are two other campuses currently working to establish a program. For more information about MACRO’s services, visit macro.missouri.edu.

Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Shannon Braida, L.M. Daily, and Adam Dietrich, Partners in Prevention Research & Evaluation Staff. Data prepared by Dong Ding.
Funded by the Missouri Department of Mental Health, Division of Behavioral Health. Original funding for ALR was provided by the Missouri Foundation for Health.

Volume 5, Number 1: Bystander Interventions to Reduce Violence

Bystander Interventions to Reduce Violence

As Missouri’s consortium dedicated to preventing higher education substance abuse, Partners in Prevention (PIP) promotes healthy behaviors on college campuses. PIP implements the Missouri Assessment of College Health and Behaviors (MACHB), previously referred to as the Missouri College Health and Behavior Survey, in order to gain a better understanding of health behaviors and experiences on campuses across Missouri. The survey also gathers information on bystanders that witness sexually coercive and abusive behaviors on Missouri college campuses. A bystander can be described as someone who witnesses or is aware of a harmful situation that is happening to someone else. They can either choose to intervene (helpful bystander) or ignore the problem (hurtful bystander)1. The MACHB includes questions that allow students to report their own experiences with bystander interventions, whether or not they choose to intervene, and resources they may utilize to help the situation. Further, bystander interventions have been reported as one of the most promising prevention strategies to reduce violence on college campuses.2

Discussion

In the MACHB, which gathers comprehensive data from 21 colleges and universities across Missouri, three questions were utilized to gather information about the likelihood of student bystander intervention on campus (How likely are you to: Tell someone if I heard what sounded like yelling or fighting through my residence hall/apartment walls, speak up and express concern if I heard a stranger talking about coercing someone to have sex, or speak up and express concern if I heard a friend talking about coercing someone to have sex). Approximately 48% of surveyed individuals would tell someone about fighting overheard through apartment/residential hall walls. Further, 78% of individuals would intervene if they witnessed their friend coercing an individual to have sex, and 62% if someone was coercing a stranger.

table511 National research indicates students consistently perceived that helpful bystander intentions of others is lower than it actually is. Students perceived 55% of peers would choose to intervene; whereas 81% of students report they would be a helpful bystander1. These misperceptions can create barriers towards bystander interventions due to fears of violating social norms.

Resources and Programs for Intervention

The majority of students (64%) who would intervene stated they would reach out to another student for help with the situation, 19% would go to the police, and 5% would choose the Health/Wellness/Counseling Center for support.

table512

Individuals that choose not to intervene in hostile situations most commonly attribute it to their inherent personality traits, such as being shy or disliking conflict. In order to encourage these individuals to become involved, several programs have been developed to promote bystander intervention, such as Green Dot, Step UP!, and STOP SV. One in particular, Green Dot, has developed methods to intervene if one is shy or nervous to approach the situation directly. This training suggest3 different means to be a helpful bystander; Direct, Delegate or Distract. Taking individual action to intervene and prevent or stop the harm would be considered a Direct approach. Another option would be to Delegate3. Delegate differs from directly approaching a situation by requesting or assisting other individuals to diffuse a situation. An example would be finding friends of the individual in danger or by contacting the authorities for assistance. Finally, students can also use the Distract method, which entails redirecting focus away from the situation in a manner that stops or reduces chances of harm. A common example is telling the individual causing harmed that their car is being towed in order for the situation to be averted3. Many college campuses around the country are beginning to encourage students to complete bystander intervention training. The intervention programs may be a key role in reducing violence on campus and creating a safe environment for students2. For more information on Green Dot, please refer to their website: www.livethegreendot.com.

Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Shannon Braida, Partners in Prevention Research & Evaluation Staff
Funded by the Missouri Department of Mental Health, Division of Behavioral Health. Original funding for ALR was provided by the Missouri Foundation for Health.

Volume 5, Special Edition 1: Missouri Assessment of College Health Behaviors Fact Sheet

Missouri Assessment of College Health Behaviors Fact Sheet

Missouri Partners in Prevention (PIP) is a higher education substance abuse consortium dedicated to creating healthy and safe college campuses. The PIP Coalition is comprised of 21 public and private college and university campuses across the state. First implemented in 2007, the Missouri Assessment of College Health Behaviors (formerly referred to as the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey or MCHBS) is designed to understand the role of alcohol, drugs (illegal and prescription), mental health issues, and power-based personal violence on student health and wellness. The survey also assesses individual’s attitudes towards campus and community policies, other student’s behavior, and bystander interventions. The MACHB is administered online every spring to undergraduate students at Coalition campuses across the state. The PIP Coalition analyzes the data collected from the survey in order to implement a variety of beneficial programs at participating colleges and universities. Please note that in 2017, the MCHBS survey will change its name to the Missouri Assessment of College Health Behaviors (MACHB).

The MACHB examines a variety of health behaviors

Alcohol Use and Abuse

Do students use a designated driver or other protective strategies? Have they encountered legal problems or trouble with campus administrators? Questions in this section of the survey focus on the frequency of student’s alcohol use, where they drink, the direct and indirect consequences of their drinking on academic and social life, how they obtain alcohol (if they are minors), recovery options on campus, and reasons for drinking or abstaining. This section also includes information regarding binge drinking behavior and protective behavior strategies, such as utilizing a designated driver or taxi service. Roughly 80 questions on the MACHB focus on alcohol use and abuse on campus.


Perceptions of other Student’s Health Behaviors

How often do you think the typical student on your campus uses marijuana?
It is common on college campuses for students to miscalculate the frequency and severity of other student’s high-risk behaviors. Information is collected on student perceptions regarding the incidence of other student’s high-risk behaviors.


Illicit Substance Abuse

How often have students used or abused illicit substances and prescription drugs? Where do they commonly engage in substance abuse?
The survey seeks to understand the abuse of illicit substances in the context of social behavior and determine the consequences of substance abuse as they relate to social, personal, and academic concerns. This section analyzes which substances are being abused, how often, by whom, and where such abuse occurs.


Tobacco Use

What types of tobacco products do students use? How often do students use them?
Questions in this section identify what type of tobacco products are being used, how often, and in what settings. These questions also seek to identify the age of first use, the role of tobacco as a social behavior, and perceptions of health consequences. This section focuses not only on cigarette use, but a range of tobacco products, including smokeless tobacco, hookah, and E-cigarettes.


Mental Health

Have student’s experienced major depression, anxiety, panic attacks, etc.? In the past year, have students had suicidal thoughts?
This portion examines varying aspects of mental health, including what resources students would use when mental health concerns arise.


Power-Based Personal Violence

Have students experienced non-consensual sexual contact against their will? Would students speak up and express concern if they witnessed a stranger coercing someone to have sex?
This section gathers information about non- consensual sexual contact that students have experienced while attending college. There also have been recently added questions to the survey detailing stalking behaviors and bystander interventions.


Sexual Health

What role do drugs and alcohol play in student’s sexual behavior and experience?
This section inquiries about sexual activity in the past year and perceptions of other students’ sexual activity. The information is helping in identifying misperceptions of sexual behavior amid students. This portion also identifies the role of substances in sexual behavior and their effect on frequency of occurrence and attitude towards sexual encounters.


Driving Safety

Do students text or wear their seatbelt while they drive? Do they often speed or drive while they are drowsy?
Questions seek to understand the frequency of engagement in a variety of hazardous behaviors, including texting, speeding, and other forms of distracted driving.


Perceptions of Prevention and Policy on Campus

Do students feel the campus is concerned about alcohol and drug prevention? Do they feel such policies are enforced effectively and consistently?
This portion helps to understand the awareness of the prevention efforts on campus.


Sense of Belonging

Do you wish you were more connected on campus?
This section focuses on student’s feelings of interconnectedness with other students on campus, and how these feelings impact overall behavior.

Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Dina van der Zalm, Dong Ding, and Dan Reilly, Partners in Prevention Research & Evaluation Staff
Funded by the Missouri Department of Mental Health, Division of Behavioral Health. Original funding for ALR was provided by the Missouri Foundation for Health.

Volume 5, Special Edition 2: Partners in Prevention Fact Sheet

Partners in Prevention Fact Sheet

Missouri Partners in Prevention (PIP) is a higher education substance abuse consortium dedicated to creating healthy and safe college campuses. The PIP Coalition is comprised of 21 public and private college and university campuses across the state. First implemented in 2007, the Missouri Assessment of College Health Behaviors (formerly referred to as the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey or MCHBS) is designed to understand the role of alcohol, drugs (illegal and prescription), mental health issues, and power-based personal violence on student health and wellness. The survey also assesses individual’s attitudes towards campus and community policies, other student’s behavior, and bystander interventions. The MACHB is administered online every spring to undergraduate students at Coalition campuses across the state. The PIP Coalition analyzes the data collected from the survey in order to implement a variety of beneficial programs at participating colleges and universities.

Who We Work With

table5ES2

Contact

  1. Joan Masters- mastersj@missouri.edu
  2. Dan Reilly- reillyd@missouri.edu
  3. Dong Ding & Shannon Braida - muoslwrcpip@missouri.edu

What We Do

Implement: Construct a comprehensive survey for students at participating PIP colleges and universities across Missouri.

Identify: Identify high-risk behaviors occurring amongst undergraduate students on college campuses.

Inform: Write monthly briefs utilizing data from the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey to update administrators and students about possible health risks on campus.

Topics on the Missouri Assessment of College Health Behaviors (MACHB)

  1. Alcohol Use and Abuse
  2. Illicit Substance Abuse
  3. Tobacco Use
  4. Power-Based Personal Violence - Mental Health
  5. Sexual Health
  6. Driving Safety
  7. Sense of Belonging on Campus
  8. Perceptions of Prevention and Policy on Campus - Perceptions of other Student’s Health Behaviors
Contact Partners in Prevention at (573) 884-7551. Report prepared by Shannon Braida, Partners in Prevention Research & Evaluation Staff
Funded by the Missouri Department of Mental Health, Division of Behavioral Health. Original funding for ALR was provided by the Missouri Foundation for Health.

Briefs by Topic


Driving Safety

  1. Volume 1, Number 17: A Picture of Frequent Drinkers and Drivers
  2. Volume 1, Number 8: Texting and Driving Among Missouri College Students
  3. Volume 2, Number 3: Safety Belt Usage High Among Missouri College Students
  4. Volume 2, Number 10: An Update on Texting and Driving Among Missouri College Students
  5. Volume 4, Number 6: An Update on Texting and Driving Among Missouri College Students

Illegal Drugs

  1. Volume 1, Number 16: Missouri College Students & Illegal Drug Use
  2. Volume 1, Number 14: Marijuana & Missouri College Students
  3. Volume 1, Number 7: Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs Among Missouri College Students
  4. Volume 2, Number 5: Prescription Drug Misuse Among Missouri College Students
  5. Volume 2, Number 8: Marijuana Use Among Missouri College Students
  6. Volume 2, Number 16: Prescription Drug Misuse: Reasons and Outcomes
  7. Volume 3, Number 3: Marijuana Use and Other High Risk Behaviors
  8. Volume 3, Number 7: Prescription Drug Misuse
  9. Volume 4, Number 3: Marijuana Use
  10. Volume 4, Number 7: Prescription & Illicit Drug Use

Mental Health

  1. Volume 1, Number 15: Mental Health Among Self-identified LGBQQ College Students
  2. Volume 1, Number 9: Missouri College Students and Suicide
  3. Volume 1, Number 5: Missouri College Student Mental Health 2012
  4. Volume 2, Number 6: Best Practices in Campus Suicide Prevention: Highlighting Ask.listen.refer. Suicide Prevention Training for Missouri Campuses
  5. Volume 2, Number 17: Differences in Help Seeking Behaviors by Institutional Classification
  6. Volume 3, Number 13: Prevalence of Mental Health Issues with Missouri College Students
  7. Volume 4, Number 10: Suicidal Ideation and Ask Listen Refer

Partners in Prevention

  1. Volume 1, Number 13: Campus Membership in Partners in Prevention
  2. Volume 1, Number 2, Special Edition: Missouri Partners in Prevention, Missouri College Health Behavior Survey
  3. Volume 1, Number 1: Introduction to Missouri's Higher Education Substance Abuse Consortium
  4. Volume 2, Number 1: A Look Ahead
  5. Volume 2, Number 2: The Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS)
  6. Volume 3, Number 2: Key Findings from the 2014 Missouri College Health Behavior Survey
  7. Volume 3, Number 1: A Look Ahead: Volume 3 of the Partners in Prevention brief series
  8. Volume 3, Number 10: Campus Administrator Support for Campus Prevention Efforts
  9. Volume 4, Number 1: A Look Ahead: Volume 4 of the Partners in Prevention brief series
  10. Volume 5, Number 1: Missouri Assessment of College Health and Behaviors

Alcohol

  1. Volume 1, Number 12: Underage Students Accessing Alcohol: Trend Data
  2. Volume 1, Number 11: Academic Effects of Student Drinking
  3. Volume 1, Number 4: Involvement, Academics and Alcohol Among Missouri College Students
  4. Volume 1, Number 3: Trend Data Among Students Attending Public Universities in Missouri, 2007-2012
  5. Volume 2, Number 4: The Economics of Prevention
  6. Volume 2, Number 7: Alcohol Consumption and Perception by Carnegie Classification
  7. Volume 2, Number 9: Alcohol Consequences by Carnegie Classification
  8. Volume 2, Number 11: Alcohol Related Behaviors Among Missouri College Student Athletes
  9. Volume 2, Number 12: An Analysis of Student Drinking Behavior in Comparison to Student Living Arrangements
  10. Volume 2, Number 14: Student Sense of Belonging and Drinking
  11. Volume 2, Number 13: Gender Differences in Drinking on Missouri Campuses
  12. Volume 3, Number 4: Binge Drinking and Student Retention: Binge Drinkers Consideration of Transferring
  13. Volume 3, Number 8: Consistency of Alcohol Policy Enforcement
  14. Volume 3, Number 11: Underage Drinking
  15. Volume 4, Number 9: Alcohol: Binge-drinking and Negative Consequences

Subpopulation Data

  1. Volume 1, Number 10: Missouri Student Veterans and Sense of Belonging on Campus
  2. Volume 2, Number 19: Key Findings for International Students on the MCHBS
  3. Volume 2, Number 15: Health Behaviors of Missouri College Students from Low-income Counties
  4. Volume 3, Number 5: Veteran Student Health Behaviors on Missouri University Campuses
  5. Volume 3, Number 6: Student Misperceptions of High Risk Behavior
  6. Volume 3, Number 9: Minority Student Health Behaviors
  7. Volume 4, Number 5: Students in Recovery
  8. Volume 4, Number 8: Sexual Orientation and the Student Experience
  9. Volume 5, Number 2: Students in Recovery
  10. Volume 5, Number 3: Alcohol Use Amongst the LGBQQ Population

Tobacco Use

  1. Volume 1, Number 6: Tobacco Products & Missouri College Students
  2. Volume 4, Number 2: Tobacco Policy

Power-based Personal Violence

  1. Volume 2, Number 18: Sexual Violence on College Campuses
  2. Volume 3, Number 12: Sexual Violence
  3. Volume 4, Number 4: Relationship Abuse
  4. Volume 4, Number 11: Power-based Personal Violence on College Campuses

Survey Fact Sheets


MACHB fact sheet

First implemented in 2007, the Missouri Assessment of College Health Behaviors (formerly referred to as the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey or MCHBS) is designed to understand the role of alcohol, drugs (illegal and prescription), mental health issues, and power-based personal violence on student health and wellness. The survey also assesses individual’s attitudes towards campus and community policies, other student’s behavior, and bystander interventions. The MACHB is administered online every spring to undergraduate students at Coalition campuses across the state.


MCSVA fact sheet

First implemented in 2012, the Missouri College Student Veteran Assessment (MCSVA) was designed to better understand the role of health and wellness of student veterans in the campus community. The survey also provides information regarding perceptions of campus and community resources allocated for veterans, as well as analyzing the ease of transition from military service to academic andstudent life The MCSVA is currently administered online every fall semester to student veterans at participating coalition campuses across the state.


The Carnegie Classification fact sheet

The Carnegie Classification system is a framework for categorizing institutional diversity in the United States. Formed by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education in 1970, the Carnegie Foundation has published six updates to their original 1973 publication. These categorizations have been used to help policy analysts and researchers classify the wide variety of institutions represented in higher education. As institutions of higher education have evolved, the classification system has morphed to accurately reflect the categories of institutions.


Archived Content

MCBHS fact sheet

First implemented in 2007 by Partners in Prevention, the Missouri College Health Behavior Survey (MCHBS) is designed to understand the role of alcohol, drugs (illegal and prescription), mental health issues, and gambling on student health and wellness. The survey also provides information regarding attitudes, perceptions of other student’s behaviors, campus and community laws, and policies. The MCHBS is administered online every Spring semester to undergraduate students at all coalition campuses across the state. The Partners in Prevention Coalition helps to implement and analyze the data collected from the survey, which in turn is used to design a variety of programming at participating colleges and universities.

Relevant National Research Articles


SAMHSA’s Center for the Application of Prevention Technologies (CAPT) has recently released a new resources on drinking and substance abuse: Youth Marijuana Use: Consumption, Consequence, and Risk and Protective Factor Data Resources, which offers prevention practitioners a comprehensive listing of available data resources and surveys developed by and for a range of federal agencies.

CAPT has also revised three tools to highlight current research on college/campus populations:

  1. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Binge or Episodic Drinking Among Adolescents and Young Adults: Using Prevention Research to Guide Prevention Practice: provides an overview of risk and protective factors associated with binge drinking, detailed summaries of individual research studies and their findings, and a separate section that highlights factors relevant to college populations and campuses.
  2. Strategies to Prevent Binge or Heavy Episodic Drinking Among Adolescents and Young Adults: Using Prevention Research to Guide Prevention Practice: Provides an overview of the relevant literature, including a separate section on strategies shown to be effective with college populations, descriptions of individual studies, and tips for using the document to inform prevention planning.
  3. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with the Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs: Using Prevention Research to Guide Prevention Practice: Provides an overview of risk and protective factors associated with prescription drug misuse, detailed summaries of individual research studies and their findings, and a separate section that highlights factors relevant to college populations and campuses.


The Nature and Correlates of Young Women's Peer-Directed Protective Behavioral Strategies
Armstrong, K., Watling, H., Buckley, L. (February 2014) Addictive Behaviors


The Burden of Alcohol Use: Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Consequences among College Students
White, A., Hingson, R. (2014) Alcohol Research, The Journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism


Dating Violence among College Students: The Risk and Protective Factors
Kaukinen, C. (February 2014) Trauma, Violence & Abuse


Improving College Campus-Based Prevention of Violence against Women: A Strategic Plan for Research Built on Multipronged Practices and Policies
Banyard, V. L. (February 2014) Trauma, Violence & Abuse


Focus On: Women and the Costs of Alcohol Use
Wilsnack, S. C., Wilsnack, R.W.(2014) Alcohol Research, The Journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism


Feminist Self-Defense and Resistance Training for College Students: A Critical Review and Recommendations for the Future
Gidycz, C.A., Dardis, C.M (February 2014) Trauma, Violence & Abuse


Measuring the Burden: Alcohol's Evolving Impact
Hingson, R. (2014) Alcohol Research, The Journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism


Campus and College Victim Responses to Sexual Assault and Dating Violence: Disclosure, Service Utilization, and Service Provision
Sabina, C., Ho, L.Y. (February 2014) Trauma, Violence & Abuse


Academic Advising via Facebook: Examining Student Help Seeking
Amador, P. & Amador, J. (April 2014) The Internet and Higher Education


College Student Drinking Research From the 1940s to the Future: Where We Have Been and Where We Are Going
Kilmer, J.R., Cronce, J.M. & Larimer, M.E. (March 2014) Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs


Special Issue: Substance Use Problems and Issues in Recovery among College Students (February 2014)
Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions


Case Closed: Research Evidence on the Positive Public Health Impact of the Age 21 Minimum Legal Drinking Age in the United States
DeJong, W., Blanchette, J. (March 2014) Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs


Dangerous Climates: Factors Associated With Variation in Racist Hate Crimes on College Campuses
Dyke, N. (July 2014) Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice


Response of Heavy-drinking Voluntary and Mandated College Students to a Peer-led Brief Motivational Intervention Addressing Alcohol Use
Mastroleo, N.R., Oakley, W., Eaton, E.M. & Borsani, B. (June 2014) The Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment


College Student Perceptions of Victim Action: Will Targets of Stalking Report to Police?
Cass, A.I. & Mallicoat, S., L. (June 2014) American Journal of Criminal Justice


Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-Delivered Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention to Reduce Alcohol-Related Risky Sexual Behavior Among College Students
Lewis, M.A., Patrick, M.E., Litt, D.M., Atkins, D.C., Kim, T., Blayney, J.A., Norris, J., George, W.H. & Larimer, M.E. (June 2014) Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology


Protective Behavioral Strategies Mediate Problem-Focused Coping and Alcohol Use in College Students
Walker, R. & Stephens, R.S. (June 2014) Addictive Behaviors


Developing Public Health Regulations for Marijuana: Lessons from Alcohol and Tobacco
Pacula, R. L., Kilmer, B., Wagenaar, A.C., Chaloupka, F. & Caulkins, J.P. (June 2014) American Journal of Public Health


Administrators' Perceptions of College Campus Protocols, Response, and Student Prevention Efforts for Sexual Assault
Amar, A.F., Strout,T.D., Simpson, S., Cardiello, M. & Beckford, S. (August 2014) Violence and Victims


The Effect of Enrolling in a Minority-Serving Institution for Black and Hispanic Students in Texas
Flores, S.M. & Park, T.J. (July 2014) Research in Higher Education


Effects of the Campus Watch Intervention on Alcohol Consumption and Related Harm in a University Population
Cousins, K., Connor, J.L. & Kypros, K. (July 2014) Drug and Alcohol Dependence


Local Support for Alcohol Control Policies and Perceptions of Neighborhood Issues in Two College Communities
Fairlie, A.M., DeJong, W. & Wood, M.D. (July 2014) Substance Abuse


The Effect of Enrolling in a Minority-Serving Institution for Black and Hispanic Students in Texas
Flores, S.M. & Park, T.J. (July 2014) Research in Higher Education


Are Female College Students Who are Diagnosed with Depression at Greater Risk of Experiencing Sexual Violence on College Campus?
Hossain, M.B., Memiah, P. & Adeyinka A. (August 2014) Journal of Healthcare for the Poor and Underserved


Perceptions of, and Assistance Provided to, a Hypothetical Rape Victim: Differences Between Rape Disclosure Recipients and Nonrecipients
Paul, L.P., Kehn, K., Gray, M.J. & Salapska-Gelleri, J. (August 2014) Journal of American College Health


The Role of Positive Alcohol Expectancies in Underage Binge Drinking Among College Students
McBride, N.M., Barrett, B., Moore, K.A. & Schonfeld, L. (August 2014) Journal of American College Health


Psychological Factors in Community College Student Retention
Lukea, C., Redekopb, F. & Burgina C. (August 2014) Community College Journal of Research and Practice